Supplementary MaterialsFigure S1: The Bioanalyzer electropherogram converted gel like image of RNA isolated from different sample types. The plots were based on the average concentrations of 67 commonly detectable miRNA species in both Taqman and Exiqon QPCR platforms(TIF) pone.0041561.s002.tif (1.9M) GUID:?2EAF3F1B-EECC-45EA-B919-1278AD922970 Figure S3: The miRNA concentration between serum and purchase BI-1356 plasma showed some association with miRNA concentrations in platelets and WBC. Scatter plots were used to purchase BI-1356 demonstrate the correlation of miRNA concentration difference between serum and plasma and difference between platelets and plasma (A), WBC and plasma (B), and RBC and plasma (C). The average miRNA concentration differences between serum and plasma were represented around the Y-axis while the average differences between blood cell components and plasma were on X-axis. The plots were based on the average concentrations of 67commonly detectable miRNAs in all the samples.(TIF) pone.0041561.s003.tif (2.5M) GUID:?28A54FAD-548A-408B-ADEC-C58C28DD1398 Table S1: The serum and plasma miRNA measured by Taqman cards. (XLS) pone.0041561.s004.xls (95K) GUID:?B5C6122C-4C60-4FA9-82BC-23475E2B4CBE Table S2: The serum and plasma miRNA measured by Exiqon miRNA panels. (XLS) pone.0041561.s005.xls (318K) GUID:?E6869D30-23E4-400A-AEDC-A60F7A573822 Table S3: The list of top 5 most purchase BI-1356 abundatn miRNAs in different samples. (XLS) pone.0041561.s006.xls (30K) GUID:?08AF64F9-D638-415E-A23E-00C309D558E6 Table S4: The list of miRNAs showing preferential expression pattern among different blood components. (XLS) pone.0041561.s007.xls (45K) GUID:?DAE9A9DB-3618-4DDA-AE2D-D258DA278F38 Abstract MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that regulate various biological processes, primarily through interaction with messenger RNAs. The levels of specific, circulating miRNAs in blood have been shown to associate with various pathological conditions including cancers. These miRNAs have great potential as biomarkers for various pathophysiological conditions. In this study we focused on different sample types effects around the spectrum of circulating miRNA in blood. Using serum and corresponding plasma samples from the same individuals, we observed higher miRNA concentrations in serum samples compared to the corresponding plasma samples. The difference between serum and plasma miRNA concentration showed some associations with miRNA from platelets, which may indicate that this coagulation process may affect the spectrum of extracellular miRNA in blood. Several miRNAs also showed platform dependent variations in measurements. Our results suggest that there are a number of factors that might affect the measurement of circulating miRNA concentration. Caution must be taken when comparing miRNA data generated from different sample types or measurement platforms. Introduction Measuring the levels of specific analytes in bodily fluids, especially serum or plasma prepared from blood, is usually the most commonly used method in diagnosis. It is relatively noninvasive and in certain cases, with proper training and supervision, can be self-administered by patients for disease management (e.g. a blood sugar test). However, most of the current blood biomarkers are inadequate in specificity and sensitivity for definitive disease diagnosis. One of the major foci in biomedical research in the past few decades has been to identify biomarkers, or panels of biomarkers, in body fluids with clear disease association. Most of these activities are centered on identifying protein-based biomarkers; however, promise is still unfulfilled. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous 17 to 23 nucleotide-long noncoding regulatory RNA molecules that modulate cellular messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels by interacting with specific mRNAs, usually at the purchase BI-1356 3 untranslated region (UTR), through partial sequence complementation , . Thus far, over 1,000 human miRNAs have been identified (miRBase, www.mirbase.org). Recently, a significant number of miRNAs have also been found outside of the cells, and the levels of some of these extracellular miRNAs in circulation have been linked to different pathophysiological conditions. SLC7A7 Examples of this include the associations of miR-141 with prostate cancer, miR-499 with myocardial infarction, and miR-122 with drug-induced liver injury C. These findings raise the possibility of using the levels of specific miRNAs in circulation as biomarkers for different pathological conditions C. Compared to purchase BI-1356 protein-based biomarkers, miRNA offers several advantages: the complexity of miRNA is much lower than that of proteins; the miRNAs are stable in various bodily fluids; the sequences of many miRNAs are conserved among different clinically relevant species; the expression of some miRNAs are restricted to specific tissues or biological stages. The levels of miRNAs can also.