Bladder tumor (BC), the most common cancer arising from the human urinary tract, consists of two major clinicopathological phenotypes: muscle-invasive bladder malignancy (MIBC) and non-muscle-invasive bladder malignancy (NMIBC). the tumor suppressor genes in basal cells (cytokeratin-5+/?, cytokeratin-17+, CD44+/?, and p63+) [22,23,47]. The molecular profiling of established BC cell lines has exhibited unique expression patterns between NMBIC and MIBC. A wide variety of stem cell markers are up-regulated in CSCs obtained from MIBC cell lines . Importantly, most bladder CSCs have been recognized in highly metastatic MIBC but not in NMIBC [20,49,50,51,52,53]. The majority of metastatic BCs in the beginning respond to systemic chemotherapy, but metastatic lesions may subsequently appear despite the continuous administration of treatment. The presence of bladder CSCs may explain observations in the clinical establishing, including the most important clinical issues: chemoresistance and metastasis. The hierarchy model and the CSC theory are entirely dependent on the well-defined detection and verification of CSCs within a tumor. The following techniques have been developed to identify CSCs, including bladder CSCs: a aspect population technique with DNA-binding Hoechst 33342 or DyeCycle Violet [48,50,51], aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH) activity [52,54], sphere development [55,56], and CSC markers [22,24]. Presently, a stream cytometric technique with CSC markers can be used to detect CSCs widely. CD44 is certainly a member from the transmembrane glycoprotein family members and continues to be implicated L 006235 being a CSC marker in lots of malignancies, including mind and throat , gastric , prostate , colorectal , and pancreatic cancers . In BC, Compact disc44+ cells exhibit a sophisticated capacity to create xenografts in immune-compromised exhibit and mice chemoresistance weighed against Compact disc44? cells [20,59]. Compact disc44v6, a Compact disc44 variant isoform formulated with the Compact disc44v6 exon, provides been shown to become enriched in bladder CSCs [53,60]. Various other bladder CSC markers have already been reported, including Compact disc133 [61,62], 67-kDa laminin receptor (67LR) , Compact disc47 , Compact disc49 L 006235 , and keratin 14 (can transform individual fibroblasts in to the CSC phenotype, including properties of self-renewal, multipotency, as well as the era of heterogeneous tumors . Pre-existing cancers cells have hereditary instability; therefore, these cells acquire arbitrary mutations conveniently, chromatin adjustments, and epigenetic reprogramming. The era of iPS cells we can hypothesize that differentiated cancers cells could possibly be reverted into CSCs with the activation of described L 006235 transcriptional elements . Several reviews have suggested the fact that phenotype of cancers cells transforms into that of CSCs when cells are transfected using the described elements Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc . Used together, these total results indicate that CSCs may result from both regular cells and pre-existing cancer cells. L 006235 Within the next section, we discuss the feasible roots of bladder CSCs. 4.1. Regular Urothelium The bladder urothelial mucosa comprises three types of urothelial cells: basal, intermediate, and differentiated umbrella [16,17,18]. Significantly, a hereditary mouse model for BC provides confirmed that BCs occur from these distinctive urothelia . McConkeys group performed a clustering evaluation from the gene appearance profile of MIBC and confirmed that this cancer tumor can be additional categorized into basal, luminal, and reported that MIBC develops solely from Sonic hedgehog (Hh)-expressing basal cells . Keratin-5-expressing basal cells bring about carcinoma appearance network marketing leads to hyperplasia and low-grade papillary tumors WNT3 . These results claim that intermediate cells are a possible source of CSCs in NMIBC. 4.1.5. Umbrella CellsLuminal-type MIBC may originate from umbrella cells via the aberrant manifestation of transcriptional factors, such as . In addition, another report showed that luminal-typed MIBC expresses umbrella cell markers, such as uroplakins and low-molecular-weight keratin 20 . Therefore, MIBC may originate from umbrella cells, which may transform into bladder CSCs. 4.2. Bladder Malignancy (BC) Cells Malignancy stemness is definitely affected by three parts: genetic diversity, altered epigenetics, and the tumor microenvironment . The tumor microenvironment is definitely important for malignancy cell survival, particularly in solid tumors, because solid tumor cells face challenges during growth, such as hypoxia, low nourishment, and relationships with surrounding normal cells, including tumor-associated fibroblasts, macrophages, the perivascular stroma, and endothelial cells. The tumor microenvironment contributes to CSC maintenance by providing a stem cell market. Tumor angiogenesis-mediated malignancy vascular market is definitely important for the maintenance and proliferation of CSCs . Stem-like characteristics of BC are not observed until late in tumor development . These findings L 006235 suggest that the generation of bladder CSCs is definitely a late event in tumorigenesis, and pre-existing BC is likely to supply CSCs via numerous mechanisms as discussed below (Number 3). Open in a separate window Amount 3 Possible systems.
Supplementary MaterialsS1 File: Table A, The list of chemical molecules used in the drug screen. folds after BIX-01294 treatment were listed. Table G, Different expressed genes of SMYD2 knockdown cell with or without rapamycin treatment. SMYD2 was knocked down by siRNA and the different expressed genes higher than 1.5 EGFR-IN-3 folds after rapamycin treatment were listed. Table H, The list of primers for real time RT-PCR used in the study. Table I, The list of siRNA sequences targeting SMYD2 in the study.(XLSX) pone.0116782.s001.xlsx (686K) GUID:?83C6E3C8-5E67-42BD-8B8C-60AF27850FE5 Data Availability StatementThe high throughput sequencing data have been uploaded to GEO database. And a URL was arranged as below: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi?token=ytkbseoivhcrpab&acc=GSE61255 Abstract Transcription regulation emerged to be one of the key mechanisms in regulating autophagy. Inhibitors of H3K9 methylation activates the expression of LC3B, as well as other autophagy-related genes, and promotes autophagy process. However, the detailed mechanisms of autophagy regulated by nuclear factors remain elusive. In this study, we performed a drug screen of SMYD2-/- cells and discovered that SMYD2 deficiency enhanced the cell death induced by BIX01294, an inhibitor EGFR-IN-3 of histone H3K9 methylation. BIX-01294 induces accumulation of LC3 II and autophagy-related cell death, but not caspase-dependent apoptosis. We profiled the global gene expression pattern after treatment with BIX-01294, in comparison with rapamycin. BIX-01294 selectively activates the downstream genes of p53 signaling, such as p21 and DOR, but not EGFR-IN-3 PUMA, a typical p53 target gene inducing apoptosis. BIX-01294 also induces other autophagy-related Rabbit Polyclonal to HGS genes, such as ATG4A and ATG9A. SMYD2 is a methyltransferase for p53 EGFR-IN-3 and regulates its transcription activity. Its deficiency enhances the BIX-01294-induced autophagy-related cell death through transcriptionally promoting the expression of p53 target genes. Taken together, our data suggest BIX-01294 induces autophagy-related cell death and selectively activates p53 target genes, which is repressed by SMYD2 methyltransferase. Introduction Protein methylation on histones is initially well demonstrated in transcription regulation and chromatin structure [1, 2]. Later, methylation on non-histone proteins is also proved to be one of the key steps in regulating protein functions . The protein methyltransferase family of SET and MYND domain containing proteins is of important functions in tumorigenesis and development processes . These proteins contain an atypical SET domain, which is split into two parts by one MYND domain . SMYD proteins exert their function by methylating proteins on lysines, among which SMYD2 (SET and MYND domain containing 2) is the mostly studied. SMYD2 is initially identified as a methyltransferase for histone H3K36 and H3K4 [5, 6]. Till now, the SMYD2 target sites on chromatin are still not well demonstrated, however, since it mainly localizes in the cytoplasma, SMYD2 has important functions on non-histone proteins. Multiple proteins were identified as the substrates of SMYD2, such as p53 (tumor protein p53), Rb (retinoblastoma 1), HSP90 (heat shock protein 90kDa), PARP1 (poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1) and ESR1 (estrogen receptor 1) [7C11]. SMYD2 methylates p53 at Lys370 and represses p53 transcription activity . Since p53 and Rb are among the most well-known tumor suppressor genes, SMYD2 is considered a potential oncogene. Several studies reported that SMYD2 is overexpressed in the tumor cells lines and patients tissues of some cancer types, including esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and acute lymphoblastic leukemia, which suggests SMYD2 as a potential drug target in these cancers [9, 12, 13]. The tissues with most abundant SMYD2 expression include heart, brain and muscle . Surprising, SMYD2 deficiency in cardiomyocyte is usually dispensable for heart development . Recently, one report proved SMYD2 represses p53 activity and cardiomyocyte apoptosis induced by cobalt chloride, which suggested SMYD2 as a regulatory protein in stress response . In order to.
Supplementary MaterialsSupplementary Information srep33323-s1. problems in related DDR genes can boost the therapeutic involvement for the subset of pancreatic cancers sufferers38. Building over the rising passion to molecularly profile PDA genomes and categorize them regarding to DNA harm repair capacity38 plus a latest functional genetic display screen identifying FA/homologous fix genes sensitizing genes for WEE1 inhibition40, we looked into the efficiency CCG 50014 of WEE1 inhibition in the framework of DDR position in PDA cells. Outcomes obtained out of this research provide compelling proof that MK-1775 could be much less effective inside a subset of PDAs harboring somatic or mutations. Outcomes MK-1775 works more effectively against DDR-proficient PDA cells in comparison to DDR-deficient PDA cells To look for the effectiveness of MK-1775 in PDA cell lines (MIA PaCa2, PANC-1, PL5, BxPC-3, SU.86.86, Capan-1, Capan-2, Hs and PL11 766T; Supplementary Fig. S1A, Desk 1 and Supplementary Dining tables S1 and S2), a short-term cell success assay was performed with raising concentrations of MK-1775 for seven days. Like a control, a non-transformed pancreatic cell range HPNE was also contained in the evaluation (Supplementary Fig. S1A). Hs 766T and PL11 cells, faulty in and respectively36, had been much less delicate to MK-1775 set alongside the DDR-proficient (DDR-P) cell lines MIA PaCa2 and PANC-1 (Fig. 1A and Desk 1). Capan-1 cells, which harbor a mutation41, had been more delicate (2.2 fold modification) to MK-1775 in comparison to Hs 766T cells (Fig. 1A and Desk 1), but regularly even more resistant (4.3 and 1.8 collapse change) set alongside the MIA PaCa2 and PANC-1 cell lines, respectively. Remarkably, HPNE was delicate to MK-1775 just CCG 50014 like DDR-P cell lines MIA PaCa2 and PANC-1 (Supplementary Fig. S1A and Supplementary Desk S1). Of take note, SU.86.86 and BxPC3 cells that are DNA repair-proficient were also resistant to MK-1775 (Fig. 1A, Desk 1 and Supplementary Desk S2). Wang skillful), Capan-1 (lacking), Hs 766T (lacking) and PL11 (lacking) PDA cell lines after treatment with: (A) MK-1775 and (B) MMC. (C) MIA PaCa2 cells had been transfected with siRNA oligos against and position. Predicated on FA biology as well as the sequence from the signaling cascade, FANCD2 foci aren’t anticipated in the (cell range PL11) and (cell range Hs 766T) lacking cells, but ought to be detectable in FA skillful (MIA PaCa2 and PANC-1) and lacking cells (Capan-1)42. To verify the integrity of our DDR-deficient PDA lines, all five PDA cell lines had been screened for FANCD2 foci development by immunofluorescence assay IL1 (Supplementary Fig. S1D). Additionally, we validated previously released reviews that cell lines with problems in the FA pathway are delicate to inter-strand crosslinking real estate agents such as for example mitomycin C (MMC)35 (Fig. 1B) and oxaliplatin (Supplementary Fig. S1E). Dose response data with MK-1775, Oxaliplatin and MMC are summarized in Desk 1 and Supplementary Dining tables S1 and S4. To validate the full total outcomes acquired in the endogenous restoration lacking cell lines, we transiently transfected the DDR-P cells (MIA PaCa2) with siRNA oligos against and (Fig. 1C inset). In keeping with the above mentioned outcomes, silencing either or induced level of resistance to MK-1775 when compared with control transfected cells (Fig. 1C and Supplementary Desk S5). Similar outcomes were acquired in another DDR-P cell range, PL5 cells (Supplementary Fig. S1F and Supplementary Desk S5). or silencing sensitizes CCG 50014 the cells to MMC (Fig. 1D), in contract with previous research35. Interestingly, regardless of the phenotypic variations seen in cell success, all five PDA cell CCG 50014 lines react mechanistically to WEE1 inhibition (through MK-1775 treatment) as evidenced with a reduction in WEE1 proteins manifestation and downstream phosphorylation of CDK1 (Fig. 1E), as also reported by additional research14,43. These data claim that endogenous genetic.
The increasing variety of patients with sequenced prostate cancer genomes enables us to study not only individual oncogenic mutations, but also capture the global burden of genomic alterations. we delve into the various mutational processes underlying those alterations and spotlight associations with molecular subtypes. Finally, we evaluate how a tumor’s mutation burden may help predict response to certain therapies. There are several caveats: factors beyond the tumor genome, such as the transcriptome, epigenome, and the microenvironment are unquestionably relevant, but beyond the scope of this mini review. Second of all, the analyzed cohorts are predominantly comprised of patients of European ancestry. Finally, this review of global genomic alterations is simply designed to augment, not supersede, the relevance of individual mutations and traditional Purpureaside C medical guidelines. Burden of Genomic Alterations in Different Clinical Claims Tumor mutation burden (TMB) (7) is definitely measured in a different way among numerous prostate malignancy cohorts. Sometimes, it is reported as the load of non-synonymous mutations (NS) with a minimum allele rate of recurrence of 0.5C10%. Additional times, it is reported as the load Purpureaside C of any solitary nucleotide variants (SNVs). Some research survey the speed of indels (8 additionally, 9). The TMB of unselected and treatment-na usually? ve locoregional prostate adenocarcinoma cohorts falls between 0.94 and 1.74 NS per megabase (Mb) (Desk 1). Typical TMB seems to correlate using the patient’s age group at medical diagnosis (~0.5 NS/Mb for all those diagnosed within their 40s vs. ~0.9 NS/Mb within their 60s) (12). Principal tumor grade is normally a major scientific feature and defined with the Gleason rating (becoming updated towards the Quality Group Rabbit polyclonal to Icam1 program) (33). The SNV burden continues to be reported as 1.5 higher in intermediate design Gleason 7 tumors vs. well-differentiated pattern Gleason 6 tumors (= 1.05 10?3) (16), in keeping with various other reports (12). Oddly enough, a little cohort of Purpureaside C South African sufferers of African ancestry with high-risk locoregional disease had been found to truly have a approximately 4-fold boost of TMB (3.0C4.7 SNVs plus indels/Mb) (Desk 1) weighed against a control cohort of Euro ancestry (23). Alternatively, a scholarly research of African-American guys with primary prostate cancers acquired an interest rate of 0.83 SNVs/Mb, consistent with cohorts of predominantly European-Americans (17). Desk 1 Tumor mutation burden (TMB) in locoregional, metastatic castration-sensitive (mCSPC), and metastatic castration-resistant (mCRPC) prostate cancers examples. 2015 (= 333)(11)1.36 NS/MbcWESMuTect (10)MSKCC/DFCI, 2018 (= 1013)(12)1.74 NS/MbcGene -panel (MSK-IMPACT)dMuTect (10)MSKCC, 2017 (= 504)(13)33 NS/samplec, eWGSMuTect (10)Comprehensive/Cornell, 2013 (= 57)(14)0.53 SNVs/MbbWGSSomaticSniper (15)CPC-GENE, 2017 (= 477)(16)0.83 SNVs/MbbWESMuTect (10)Cornell/Karmanos, 2017 (= 102)(17)0.93 SNVs/MbcWESUsed very own methodMCTP, 2012 (= 61)(18)0.93 SNVs/MbbWESVarScan (19)PROGENY Research, 2017 (= 49)(20)1.4 SNVs/MbbWESMuTect (10)Comprehensive/Cornell, 2012 (= 112)(21)3.0C4.7 indels/MbWGSMuTect plus SNVs, Strelka, VarScan (10, 19, 22)SAPCS, 2018 (= 15)(23)mCSPC2.08 NS/MbcGene -panel (MSK-IMPACT)eMuTect (10)MSKCC, 2017 (= 504)(13)mCRPC4.02 NS/MbcGene -panel (MSK-IMPACT)eMuTect (10)MSKCC, 2017 (= 504)(13)4.1 NS/MbbWGSMuTect, Strelka (10, 22)SU2C/PCF Wish Group, 2018 (= 101)(9)44 NS/samplec, eWESUsed Own MethodFred Hutchinson CRC, 2016 (= 176)(24)2.00 SNVs/MbcWESUsed Own MethodMCTP, 2012 (= 61)(18)2.3 SNVs/Mbb,dWGSFreebayes, Pindel (25, 26)UMichigan, 2018 (= 360)(27)3.6 SNVs/MbcWGSMuTect (10)MSKCC/DFCI, SU2C/PCF Wish Group, 2018 (= 23)(28)4.4 SNVs/MbcWESMuTect (10)SU2C/PCF Wish Group, 2015 (= 150)(29)41 SNVs/sampleb, e, fWESMuTect (10)Multi-Institute, 2016 (= 114)(30)98 SNVs/samplec, eWGSCaVEMan (31)PELICAN Research, 2015 (= 10)(31) Open up in another screen ametastases, or reappears seeing that macro-metastases following definitive prostatectomy/radiotherapy, is termed metastatic castration-sensitive prostate cancers (mCSPC) (34C36). As the design of individual mutations is comparable between locoregional Just.
Supplementary MaterialsDetailed Demographics Desks S1 41380_2018_345_MOESM1_ESM. no prior evidence in the literature for involvement in pain, experienced the most strong empirical evidence from our discovery and validation actions, and was a strong predictor for pain in the independent cohorts, particularly in females and males with PTSD. Additional biomarkers with best overall convergent practical evidence for involvement in pain were GNG7, CNTN1, LY9, CCDC144B, and GBP1. Some of the individual biomarkers recognized are focuses on of existing medicines. Moreover, the biomarker gene manifestation signatures were utilized for Altretamine bioinformatic drug repurposing analyses, yielding prospects for possible fresh drug candidates such as SC-560 (an NSAID), and amoxapine (an antidepressant), as well as natural compounds such as pyridoxine (vitamin B6), cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12), and apigenin (a flower flavonoid). Our work may help mitigate the diagnostic and treatment dilemmas that have contributed to the current opioid epidemic. major depression, bipolar, schizophrenia, schizoaffective, schizophrenia and schizoaffective combined, post-traumatic stress disorder Blood gene expression experiments RNA extraction Whole blood (2.5C5?ml) was collected into each PaxGene tube by program venipuncture. PaxGene tubes consist of proprietary reagents for the stabilization of RNA. RNA was extracted and processed as previously explained [6C8]. Microarrays Microarray work was carried out using previously explained strategy [6C9]. and as explained below. Biomarkers Step 1 1: Discovery We have used the subjects score from your VAS Pain Level, assessed at the time of blood collection (Fig.?1). We analyzed gene expression variations between appointments with Low Pain (defined as a score of 0C2) and appointments with Altretamine High Pain (defined as a score of 6 and above), using a powerful within-subject design, after that an across-subjects summation (Fig.?1). We examined the info in two methods: an Absent-Present (AP) strategy, and a differential appearance (DE) strategy, as in prior function by us on suicide biomarkers [6C8]. The AP strategy might catch turning on / off of genes, as well as the DE approach might capture gradual changes in expression. Analyses were performed seeing that described [7C9] previously. We have created inside our labs R scripts to automate and carry out each one of these huge dataset analyses in mass, checked against individual manual credit scoring . Gene Image for the probesets had been discovered using NetAffyx (Affymetrix) for Affymetrix HG-U133 As well as 2.0 GeneChips, accompanied by GeneCards to verify the principal gene symbol. Furthermore, for all those probesets which were not really designated a gene image by NetAffyx, we utilized GeneAnnot (https://genecards.weizmann.ac.il/geneannot/index.shtml) to acquire gene icons for these uncharacterized probesets, accompanied by GeneCard. Genes had been then have scored using our personally curated CFG directories as defined below (Fig.?1e). Step two 2: Prioritization using Convergent Functional Genomics (CFG) Directories We have Altretamine set up in our lab (Lab of Neurophenomics, www.neurophenomics.info) manually curated directories from the human gene expression/protein expression research (postmortem human brain, peripheral tissues/liquids: CSF, blood vessels and cell civilizations), human genetic research (association, copy amount variations and Altretamine linkage), and pet model gene expression and genetic research, published to time on psychiatric disorders. Just findings considered significant in the principal publication, by the analysis authors, utilizing their particular experimental thresholds and style, are contained in our directories. Our directories include only principal literature data , nor include review documents or other supplementary data Altretamine integration analyses in order to avoid redundancy and circularity. These huge and constantly up to date directories have been used in Flrt2 our CFG mix validation and prioritization platform (Fig.?1e). For this study, data from 355 papers on pain were present in the databases at the time of the CFG analyses (December 2017) (human being genetic studies-212, human nervous tissue studies-3, human being peripheral cells/fluids- 57, non-human genetic studies-26, nonhuman mind/nervous tissue studies-48, non-human peripheral cells/fluids- 9). Analyses were performed as previously described [7, 8]. Step 3 3: Validation analyses Validation analyses of our candidate biomarker genes were conducted separately for AP and for DE. We examined which of the top candidate genes (total CFG score of 6 or above), were stepwise changed in expression from the Low Pain and High Pain group to the Clinically Severe Pain group. A CFG score of 6 or above reflects an empirical cutoff of 33.3% of the maximum possible CFG score of 12, which permits the inclusion of potentially novel genes with maximal internal score of 6 but no external evidence score. Subjects with Low Pain, as well as subjects with High Pain from the discovery cohort who did not have severe clinical pain (SF36 sum of item 21 and 22? ?10) were used, along with the independent validation cohort which all had severe clinical pain and a co-morbid pain disorder diagnosis (into 0, into 0.5,.
Before several decades, sulfate concentration and salinity have been considered to be the two essential hydrochemical factors in the formation of dolomite, yet arguments against this hypothesis have existed simultaneously. in samples with cells, yet only aragonite was detected in samples without cells. Proto-dolomite was found in all biotic samples, regardless of the variation in salinity and sulfate concentration. Moreover, the relative abundances of proto-dolomite in the precipitates were positively correlated with the salinities of the media but were uncorrelated with the sulfate concentrations of the solutions. Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) results showed that all the proto-dolomites were sphere or sphere aggregates with a Benzyl benzoate mole ratio of Mg/Ca close to 1.0. No obvious variations in morphology and Mg/Ca were found among samples with various sulfate concentrations or salinities. This work reveals that a variation of sulfate focus in option (from 0 to 100 mM) will not affect the forming of dolomite mediated by halophilic archaea, but a rise of salinity (from 140 to 280) enhances this technique. Our outcomes indicate that under organic conditions, a rise in salinity Rabbit polyclonal to Src.This gene is highly similar to the v-src gene of Rous sarcoma virus.This proto-oncogene may play a role in the regulation of embryonic development and cell growth.The protein encoded by this gene is a tyrosine-protein kinase whose activity can be inhibited by phosphorylation by c-SRC kinase.Mutations in this gene could be involved in the malignant progression of colon cancer.Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. may be even more significant compared to the loss of sulfates in microbe-mediated dolomite formation. MgCa(CO3)2] or supplementary substitution [Mg2+ + 2CaCO3 MgCa(CO3)2 + Ca2+]. The inorganic pathway well-explains the hydrothermal dolomite formation at high temperature ranges ( 100C) (Gregg et al., 2015; Rodriguez-Blanco et al., 2015; Thornton and Kaczmarek, 2017), nonetheless it cannot describe dolomite development at ambient temperature ranges, such as for example 25C (Property, 1998). Since an enormous deposit of dolomite was discovered shaped at low temperatures because of the ubiquitously well-preserved fossils and sedimentary buildings in historic dolomite stones (Blake et al., 1982; Vasconcelos and McKenzie, 2009), there must be various other pathways in charge of low temperatures dolomite development. Organic pathways had been proposed to lead to dolomite formation at low temperature. Up to now, three microbial groups, including sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) (Vasconcelos et al., 1995; Van Lith et al., 2002), methanogens (Roberts et al., 2004; Kenward et al., 2013), and halophiles (Snchez-Romn et al., 2009; Qiu et al., 2017), have been reported to be able to mediate the formation of dolomite at ambient temperature (2545C). Moreover, microbial extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) (Krause et al., 2012; Bontognali et al., 2014), cell wall fractions (Kenward et al., 2013) and polysaccharides (Zhang et al., 2012) have also been confirmed to be able to mediate dolomite formation at low temperature. In the mineralization process, microbes not only alter microenvironments through metabolic activities but also serve as nucleation sites via negatively charged functional groups around the cell surface or EPS (Tourney and Ngwenya, 2015). Among the various environmental factors, sulfate has been considered as the dominant inhibitor in both inorganic and organic pathways for the formation of dolomite. Baker and Kastner reported that dolomite formed in solution without sulfate but did not form with 5 mM sulfate in hydrothermal experiments at 200C (Baker and Kastner, 1981; Kastner, 1984). Dissolved sulfate was speculated to be tightly bound to Mg2+ in the form of an [Mg2+-might not bind with Mg2+ at low temperatures (25C). Nonetheless, the studies above did not thoroughly clarify the effect of sulfate on dolomite formation. In the work of Snchez-Romn et al. (2009), dolomite precipitated on semi-solid plates, which were solidified by agar, a type of polysaccharide mixture. Since comparable polysaccharides had been reported to be able to mediate the formation of proto-dolomite (Zhang et al., 2012), the possibility remained agar neutralized the sulfate-dependent inhibition of dolomite formation, and therefore sulfate inhibition could not be thoroughly excluded. Besides that, the sulfate concentrations in the work of Benzyl benzoate Snchez-Romn et al. (2009) referred to the values of the media before solidification. However, the Benzyl benzoate activity of sulfate in the media before and after solidification might be largely different. In addition, the lowest sulfate concentration tested in the study of Wang et al. (2016) was 500 mM, which was much higher than the average sulfate concentration in the modern oceans (29 mM). The gap is much larger in comparison with the sulfate concentration in ancient oceans even. Therefore, many problems linked to the inhibition of sulfate.