The determination of successful desensitization will therefore most likely utilize DSA detection as a proxy for the presence or absence of long-lived plasma cells. Conclusion In summary, tracking of alloreactive T cells has allowed the study of the phenotype, genotype and function of cells mediating the alloimmune response (Table 2). graft fate. In this review, we discuss existing and developing approaches to track and analyze alloreactive T and B cells in mice and humans and provide examples of discoveries made utilizing these techniques. These approaches include mixed lymphocyte reactions (MLRs), trans-vivo delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISpot) assays, the use of antigen receptor transgenic lymphocytes, and utilization of peptide-MHC complex (pMHC) multimers, along with imaging techniques for static multiparameter analysis or dynamic in vivo tracking. Such approaches have already refined our understanding of the alloimmune response and are pointing to new ways to improve allograft outcomes in the clinic. Introduction In the absence of immunosuppression, allografts in inbred mice 2,4,6-Tribromophenyl caproate succumb primarily to acute T cell-mediated rejection, whereas in outbred mice, allografts can also be rejected in a T cell-independent but complement/neutrophil-dependent manner, underscoring the heterogeneity of rejection processes in the absence of immunosuppression1. In the clinic, conventional pharmacological immunosuppression is largely effective at preventing and treating 2,4,6-Tribromophenyl caproate T cell-mediated rejection2,3, so most allografts are lost from antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR). Both preexisting and de novo donor-specific antibodies (DSA) predict poor graft outcomes compared to DSA-negative recipients, with de novo DSA-mediated ABMR being associated with IFN-inducible, natural killer cell and T cell transcripts and inferior graft survival compared to preexisting DSA4. These observations suggest that the accurate quantification of donor-specific T, B and plasma cell responses may allow for an earlier diagnosis and the development of therapeutic interventions that result in improved long-term outcomes. To this end, traditional methods of identifying alloreactive T cells and DSA are being improved upon and new techniques have become available. In this review, we will discuss evolving methods for identifying, isolating and tracking alloreactive T and B cells in mouse models and in the clinical setting. Detecting alloreactive T cells following alloantigen stimulation T cell-mediated allograft rejection is thought to depend on cytokine production, cytotoxicity and provision of help to other lymphocytes. Thus, tracking the phenotype and function of alloreactive T cells in animal models and clinical studies of transplantation may lead to better diagnosis of transplantation rejection and tolerance. We note that in addition to alloreactive T cells, autoreactive T cells from preexisting autoimmune conditions, or activated when cryptic epitopes become exposed, can also participate in damaging the graft5,6, but this review will focus Rabbit Polyclonal to EGFR (phospho-Ser1026) on tracking alloreactive T cells. Historically, alloreactive T cells have been defined by their ability to respond to stimulation with alloantigen. By coculturing peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from the donor with PBMCs from the recipient in vitro, a technique known as an MLR, recipient alloreactive T cells can be tracked based on their activation, proliferation, or production of cytokines. MLRs can theoretically measure responses to antigen presented by both direct and indirect pathways, although accumulation of T cells that recognize alloantigen directly is thought to overshadow the response of indirect T cells that may start at a lower frequency. To identify T cells specific for indirectly presented antigen, donor PBMCs lysed prior to coculture with live host PBMCs have been used as a source of donor antigen to be presented to host T cells by host antigen-presenting cells7. The MLR has also been adapted to quantify the frequency of T cells with cytotoxicity against donor cells by sequentially 2,4,6-Tribromophenyl caproate diluting responder cells in limiting dilution assays and measuring cytotoxic activity against donor targets following stimulation8. Both na?ve and memory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from human peripheral blood have been shown to proliferate in an MLR, while granzyme B and perforin are preferentially expressed by memory.