The World Health Corporation (WHO) has announced the outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus, referred to as 2019-nCoV, a pandemic, as the coronavirus offers infected over 2

The World Health Corporation (WHO) has announced the outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus, referred to as 2019-nCoV, a pandemic, as the coronavirus offers infected over 2. expand screening capability, we review problems and advancements in the fast recognition of COVID-19 by focusing on nucleic acids, antigens, or antibodies. We also summarize potential remedies and vaccines against COVID-19 and discuss ongoing medical tests of interventions to lessen viral development. 1. Intro The latest global outbreak of COVID-19 offers resulted in a public wellness emergency. As of 23 April, 2020, over 2.6 million confirmed cases had been reported to WHO from 213 territories and countries [1]. On 30 January, 2020, WHO announced the COVID-19 outbreak as the sixth public health emergency of international concern, following H1N1 (2009), Polio (2014), Ebola in West Africa (2014), Zika (2016), and Ebola (2019) [2]. The rapid global expansion and rising fatalities have raised grave concerns on the viral spread across the globe. With the rapid increase in the number of confirmed cases, WHO classified the global COVID-19 outbreak as a pandemic on March 11, 2020 [3]. COVID-19 can spread from person-to-person and animal, and transmission of infection may occur with exposure to symptomatic patients or asymptomatic individuals. Coronaviruses (CoVs) (corona: crown-like shape) are enveloped, single-stranded RNA viruses that belong to the order in the subfamily (ORF(7th edition), COVID-19 instances can be divided into suspected cases and confirmed cases [25]. Diagnostic methods for 2019-nCoV are determined by the intrinsic properties of the virus and biomarkers that hosts exhibit after infection. These biomarkers include viral proteins and nucleic acids, as well as antibodies induced in response to viral infection. The most common 2019-nCoV detection methods include viral nucleic acid detection and serum antibody (IgG or IgM) detection. A confirmed case should have at least one of the following criteria: (i) a positive result for 2019-nCoV nucleic acid, using real-time PCR tests Deflazacort from respiratory or blood samples; (ii) a high homogeneity between viral gene sequencing Deflazacort from respiratory or blood samples and known 2019-nCoV; and (iii) serum samples positive for IgM or IgG to 2019-nCoV, or seroconversion in IgG, or a fourfold or more significant increase in IgG antibody titer to 2019-nCoV in the recovery phase than in the acute phase [25]. 2.1. Nucleic Acid Targeting 2.1.1. High-Throughput Sequencing (2nd-Generation Sequencing) High-throughput sequencing (HTS) technology contains various strategies that depend on a combination of library preparation, sequencing and mapping, genome alignment, and data analysis [26] (Figure 2(a)). Unlike the 1977 Sanger sequencing method (1st-generation sequencing) [27], 2nd-generation sequencing has been widely applied in genome sequencing, transcriptional profiling (RNA-seq) disease mapping, and population genetic studies. The whole-genome nucleotide sequence of 2019-nCoV was identified and compared with the full-length genome sequence of coronavirus from bats [10] through HTS. HTS-based technology is also applied to detect 2019-nCoV. For example, Wang et al. developed a HTS method based on nanopore target sequencing (NTS) by harnessing the benefits of target amplification and long-reads for real-time nanopore sequencing [28]. Mst1 Open in a separate window Figure 2 High-throughput sequencing and real-time qRT-PCR-based detection of 2019-nCoV. (a) Four steps of high-throughput sequencing technology. (b) Steps for Deflazacort real-time RT-PCR analysis. This NTS strategy detects 2019-nCoV with higher sensitivity (100-fold) than standard qPCR, simultaneously with other respiratory viruses within 6-10?h. Moreover, all targeted regions can be identified by NTS in higher copies of samples (1000-3000 copies/mL) within 10?min, indicating the potential for rapid detection of an outbreak in the clinic. For 1?h sequencing data, reads mapped to 2019-nCoV differed remarkably from those of negative controls in all targeted regions at concentrations ranging from 10 to 3000 copies/mL. Importantly, NTS can identify mutated nucleic acids. However, the NTS platform cannot readily detect highly degraded nucleic acid fragments that are less than 200 base pairs in length [29]. Moreover, the strategy requires tedious sample preparation and extended turnaround period. Although HTS technology provides fast, low-cost DNA sequencing, it isn’t suitable for recognition in clinics. Alternatively, the HTS strategy could be ideal for amplicon de or sequencing novo sequencing of a complete genome [30]. 2.1.2. Real-Time Change Transcription-Polymerase Chain Response (RT-PCR) RT-PCR is certainly.