Copyright ? 2006 MedReviews, LLC There were a number of innovative papers presented as of this meeting held in Amsterdam about August 23C26, 2005. whereby the expression of carbonic anhydrase IX, racemase, parvalbumin, and kidney-particular chloride channel was measured with a quantitative real-time polymerase chain response (RTPCR) technique. The latter technique properly categorized all 13 renal cellular carcinomas assessed, whereas histology properly categorized 11 such tumors. This demonstrates a molecular diagnostic algorithm using an RTPCR strategy could offer an accurate pretreatment analysis in those renal cellular carcinoma individuals who are applicants for ablative therapy. Cryotherapy offers been utilized to ablate renal tumors. Hedican and associates2 (University of Wisconsin, Adriamycin Madison, WI) assessed the effect of cryoablation in a murine renal malignancy model (Renca cellular material) in nude mice and in mice with an intact disease fighting capability. The pets were put through either nephrectomy of the tumor-bearing kidney, cryoablation of the lesion, or a sham procedure. Survival in the mice with intact immune systems was significantly longer in the cryotherapy group as compared with the other 2 cohorts. This survival benefit was not present in the athymic mice. This suggests that cryotherapy in this animal model provides both local tumor control and an immune-mediated systemic response that enhances survival. Ureteral Physiology Better insight into ureteral physiology has fostered the development of medical expulsive therapy to facilitate stone passage. Madeb and associates3 (University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY) performed immunohistochemical studies and a molecular analysis of -1 receptors in human ureter and found A, B, and D subtypes throughout, with the D subtype being most prevalent. Sakamoto and Rajasekaran4 (University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA) characterized muscarinic receptors in human ureter and found that all 5 subtypes are present, with the M3 subtype predominating. Investigators reported on unique methods of monitoring ureteral activity in vivo. Davenport and colleagues5 (Bristol Urological Institute, Bristol, United Kingdom) described the use of a 6-F pressure transducer that can be passed into a ureter over a guidewire. Figenshau and associates5 (Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO) reported on the laparoscopic deployment of electromagnetic and giant magneto-resistive sensors onto the external surfaces of ureters to measure smooth muscle activity. In the latter group it was found that verapamil induced Speer4a in vivo ureteral relaxation, likely through calcium channel blockade, and theophylline had a similar effect but by a different mechanism, phosphodiesterase inhibition. In vitro studies were also reported that provided insight into medical expulsive therapy. Benson and Troxel7 (University of Missouri, Columbia, MO) mentioned that tamsulosin and nifedipine decrease the rate of recurrence of contraction in distal ureter also to a lesser degree the amplitude of contraction. Davenport and co-workers8 (Bristol Urological Institute, Bristol, UK) reported that both nifedipine and diclofenac decreased muscle tissue tone in distal and proximal human being ureter, with nifedipine advertising a greater amount of rest. Ureteral Stents Novel ideas in ureteral stent style and composition had been presented in this program. Ureteral stents offer bacterial pathogens with a binding surface area that might become a nidus for urinary system disease. Chew and associates9 (University of Western Ontario, London, Adriamycin Ontario, Canada) reported that covering ureteral stents with triclosan, an antibacterial agent, inhibited the development of a number of bacterial species in vitro. Stent patency could be influenced by extrinsic pressure, specifically in individuals with retroperitoneal malignancies. Monga and co-workers10 (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN) performed a report where the level of resistance to radial compression was assessed in vitro in 10 various kinds of ureteral stents. Among the stents examined, the Make C-Flex and the Make EndoSof (Make Urological, Spencer, IN) were discovered to be probably the most resistant to extrinsic compressive forces. Ost and associates11 (Long Island Jewish INFIRMARY, New Hyde Recreation area, NY, and Montefiore INFIRMARY, Albert Einstein University of Medication, Bronx, NY) referred to a novel 7-F double-lumen stent that offered better drainage when compared to a standard 7-F double-J stent in a porcine model. The efficacy of these stents should be founded in medical trials. Nephrolithiasis Advancements in understanding the pathophysiology of kidney rock formation and options for Adriamycin more effective rock removal had been reported as of this meeting. Around 50% of the urinary oxalate pool comes from endogenous synthesis happening in the liver. The terminal part of this process may be the oxidation of glyoxylate to oxalate, that is catalyzed by lactate dehydrogenase. Cell tradition studies possess demonstrated that the metabolic process of hydroxyproline in the mitochondrial compartment can be.