K.Z. at the time of transfection. Transfection was performed using 2?g of plasmid and 5 L Lipo2000 (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA) according to the manufacturer’s protocol. Cells were collected 36?h after transfection. KGN cells were seeded into 6-well plates 24?h before transfection with the lentivirus and the medium was replaced with fresh DMEM/F12 before Brigatinib (AP26113) transfection. The quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and western blotting experiments were performed to verify the mRNA and protein levels, respectively. 2.4. Western blotting Cells were lysed using lysis buffer (P0013, Beyotime, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China), made up of protease inhibitor cocktail (YEASEN, Shanghai, China). Protein concentrations were determined by bicinchoninic acid assay (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Rochester, NY, USA). A total of 20?g of each protein extract was separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and blotted onto a polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membrane. The PVDF membrane was blocked with 5% milk for 1?hr. Then, the membrane was incubated with the relevant antibody at 4?C overnight. After washing three times with Tris-buffered saline made up of Tween20 (TBST), the membrane was incubated with horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated secondary antibody. Relative protein levels were quantified by Image J. 2.5. RNA-seq and qRT-PCR The KGN cells treated with shRNA PGK1 in advance were seeded in 9? cm plates and serum starved for 12?hrs, before activation by DHT (final concentration 10C7 mol?L-1) for 24?hrs. The cells from each group were collected and sent to Novel Bioinformatics Ltd., Co. (Shanghai, China) for RNA-seq and bioinformatics analysis. The RNA-seq data were deposited in the NCBI (National Center for Biotechnology Information) GEO depository and Brigatinib (AP26113) assigned accession numbers is usually “type”:”entrez-geo”,”attrs”:”text”:”GSE146856″,”term_id”:”146856″GSE146856. Total RNA from cultured cells, human GCs, and mouse ovarian tissues were isolated with RNAisoreagent (9109, Takara, Shiga, Japan), according to the manufacturer’s instructions. According to the protocol, a total of 1 1?g of RNA was synthesized into cDNA using the RT Reagent Kit and gDNA Eraser (RR047A, Takara, Shiga, Japan). The qRT-PCR was performed around the QuantStudio 7 Flex system (Life Technologies, Carlsbad, CA, USA). All samples were run in triplicate. To quantify the relative expression of mRNA, data were normalised to the expression level of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). The primers and si-RNAs in the study are explained in Supplementary?Table 2. 2.6. Immunofluorescence staining Cultured cells were washed with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), then fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde for 15?min. After washing with PBS, cells were permeabilised with 1% Triton-100 for 15?min. After blocking in 3% bovine serum albumin for 1?h, cells were incubated the with main antibody overnight at 4?C. After washing with PBS, cells were incubated with Alexa Fluor 488- or 594-conjugated secondary antibodies (Invitrogen) for 1?h and then stained with the nuclear stain 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), at room heat. Immunofluorescence was detected using a confocal microscope. 2.7. Immunoprecipitation assays Cells were lysed with IP lysis buffer (P0013, Beyotime). The whole-cell lysates were incubated with antibodies overnight at 4? C and then precipitated with the antibody-protein complex, using Rabbit Polyclonal to HRH2 Protein A/G beads (Thermo Fisher Scientific). The immunoprecipitates were washed five occasions and then subjected to western blotting analysis. 2.8. Cell counting kit-8(cck-8) assay, colony formation assay, and terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase dUTP nick labeling (TUNEL) Brigatinib (AP26113) assay For the CCK-8 assay, 2000 cells were seeded Brigatinib (AP26113) in 96-well plates for 24?hrs. After treatment with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), DHT, and relative cell growth was measured using a Cell Counting Kit-8 (YEASEN), according to the manufacturer’s protocol. For colony formation assays, 2000 cells were seeded in 6-well plates and cultured overnight. Cells were cultured in the presence or absence of DHT in total media for 14 days. The medium was discarded and the cells were washed once with PBS. Cells were then fixed in methanol, at room heat for 10?min. The methanol was discarded, and cells were washed.