The potential role of EVs as a means of communication between PCa cells and cells of the bone stroma such as osteoblasts, is yet to be fully explored. predominates over other tissue types. The potential role of EVs as a means of communication between PCa cells and cells of the bone stroma such Oteseconazole as osteoblasts, is yet to be fully explored. In this study, we demonstrate that PCa cell EVs both enhance osteoblast viability and produce a significantly more supportive growth environment for PCa cells when grown in co-culture with EV-treated osteoblasts (values determined using a two-way ANOVA and Bonferronis multiple comparison test b values determined using one-way ANOVA and Holms-Sidak correction, error bars represent standard deviation test with HolmCSidak correction error bars represent standard deviation a factor present on the osteoblast cell surface and secreted by osteoblasts to mediate osteoclast formation , Ephrin A3 (EFNA3required for osteoblast cellCcell interaction and osteoblastic bone formation , vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFAosteoblasts are stimulated to produce VEGFA in response to bone morphogenetic proteins to couple angiogenesis and bone formation processes , CCC motif chemokine ligand 2 (MCP1) produced by osteoblasts and hypothesised to be involved in the recruitment of osteoclast precursors and an activator of NF-KappaB ligand induced osteoclastogenesis , Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) the constitutive expression of which is required to maintain the mature osteoblast phenotype , and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) expressed by osteoblasts and an important regulator of bone formation . Open in a separate window Fig. 5 Detection of labelled mRNAs originating from bone-metastatic prostate cancer cell lines in recipient osteoblasts and the contribution to overall transcript abundance in recipient osteoblasts. a PNT1A (normal prostate), PC3, C4-2, C4-2-4B (prostate cancer) or hOB (osteoblast) cells were grown in the presence of 5EU to label nascent RNA transcripts. Post-labelling EVs produced from these cell lines were isolated and HIST1H3G applied to hOBs cells grown under standard conditions (no EU label). After 48?h, the EV-treated hOB cells were lysed and the total RNA extracted, from the pool of total RNA EU-labelled RNA was precipitated and the presence of labelled CSF-1, VEGFA, MCP1, Runx2 and FGF2 quantified. b All EU-labelled transcripts were detected at significantly higher levels Oteseconazole in hOB cells treated with EVs isolated from EU-labelled PC3 cells compared with EU-labelled PNT1A cells (CSF-1 test with HolmCSidak correction error bars represent standard deviation values . Protein extraction and immunoblots Transfected cells were washed in PBS and lysed directly into 4? Laemmli buffer (#1610747, Biorad, Watford, UK). Isolated EVs were lysed directly in 4? Laemmli buffer (#1610747, Biorad). Immunoblots were performed as previously described . All antibodies were purchased from Cell Signalling (NEB, Hitchin, UK) Oteseconazole and were used at 1:1000 dilution: Dicer (D38E7, #5362?S), Beta-Tubulin (9F3, #2128?S), Annexin V (#8555?S), Alix (3A9, #2171?S), CD54/I-CAM (#4915?S), EpCAM (D1B3, #2626?S). Electronic supplementary material Supplementary Legends(17K, docx) Supplementary Figure 1(1.1M, tif) Supplementary Figure 2(528K, tif) Supplementary Figure 3(560K, tif) Supplementary Figure 4(826K, tif) Supplementary Figure 5(702K, tif) Supplementary Figure 6(566K, tif) Supplementary Figure 7(689K, tif) Supplementary Tables 1 and 3(15K, docx) Supplementary Table 2(98K, xlsx) Acknowledgements We thank Dr Nigel Mongan, Professor Susan Anderson (University of Nottingham) and Dr Penny Ottewell (University of Sheffield) for supplying reagents. C.P was supported by funding from Prostate Cancer Research UK (PA14-007) awarded to VJ and JEB. Author contribution CP, TD, AS, SH, TM, VJ contributed to the experimental design, acquisition, analysis of the work. TD, SH, JEB, SW, AF, VJ provided critically important intellectual content and critical revision of the manuscript. JEB led work conducted at the University of Sheffield. VJ initiated and managed this investigation. Compliance with ethical standards Conflict of interestThe authors declare that they have no conflict of interest. Oteseconazole Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (10.1038/s41388-018-0540-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorised users..