Little is known aboutCoxiella burnetii C. animals and their birth products

Little is known aboutCoxiella burnetii C. animals and their birth products [2-4]. Clinical symptoms of acute Q fever usually present as a self-limited febrile illness hepatitis or pneumonia with very little proportion evolving into chronic infections [5-7]. Q fever has outbroken in people in some countries including Spain [8] Switzerland [9] Great Britain [10] Germany [11] and Netherlands [12]. Infections are usual occupational risk in persons working with livestock and contacting with highly infectious aerosols from birth products milk urine faeces or semen of infected animals [13]. These occupational risk populations include workers in slaughterhouses meat-packing plants and tanneries as well as veterinarians and farmers [13]. In China contamination has been detected in humans as well as in a wide range of wild domestic and farmed animals such as cattle goats dogs pigs Sele mice sheep and horses [14]. In the previous study we reported the seroprevalence ofC. burnetiiinfection in farmed ruminants TAK-779 including cattle in the three northeastern provinces and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region China [15]. However information around the seroprevalence and risk factors for acquisition ofC. burnetiiinfection in cattle farmers and farm residents is limited. Thus the aim of the present study was to determine the TAK-779 seroprevalence in farmers and household members living and/or working on cattle farms and to assess the farm-related and individual risk factors for seropositivity in order to update control measures and to provide targeted advice for this occupational group and the China cattle industry. 2 Materials and Method 2.1 Study Populace and Data Collection This study was approved by the Animal Ethics Committee of Jilin Agriculture University China. All cattle farms in three northeastern provinces and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region with at least 50 cattle that were not vaccinated for Q-fever were selected from the register in the census of the zone. As an important cattle and sheep breeding base in China with the development of economy farms with different sizes were settled up quickly in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. The three TAK-779 northeastern provinces (Jilin Liaoning and Heilongjiang provinces) are comprehensive agricultural bases. Poultry pigs cattle sheep and deer are the main breeding animals in these areas. On eligible farms we approached cattle farmers and one or two of their household members aged TAK-779 12 years and older and in some cases other persons working or living on the farm such as farm employees. A TAK-779 maximum of five participants were included per farm. Nonresponders received a reminder 3 weeks after the initial invitation. After providing informed consent on farm and individual level all participating farms were visited by professional laboratory assistants who collected sera from October 2013 through July 2014. Each participant completed a questionnaire about personal characteristics (e.g. age medical history farm-related activities contact with livestock and companion animals and use of personal protective equipment). The farm owner or manager completed a questionnaire about herd size cattle housing presence of other livestock and companion animals farm facilities and hygiene measures. 2.2 Serological Method An immunofluorescence assay (IFA) (Focus Diagnostics Cypress CA USA) was used to test serum samples forC. burnetiiphases I and II IgM and IgG. All samples were screened at an initial dilution of 1 1?:?32; those with negative results were considered negative. Positive samples were further classified as indicative of relatively recent infections (IgM phase II titer >32) or past infections (IgG phase II titer >32 and IgM phase II titer <32). Samples with all other outcomes were considered negative. The term relatively recent was chosen because phase II IgM is commonly found up to 1 1 year after infection in acute Q fever cases but it may persist up to 3 years [16]. Phases I and II IgG end point titers were determined for all seropositive TAK-779 persons. In agreement with chronic Q fever diagnostic criteria used in the Netherlands [17] phase I IgG titers ≥1 24 in samples in the past infection group were considered indicative of possible chronic infection. 2.3 Statistical Analysis Results were analyzed with SPSS 19.0 software package. For comparison of the frequencies among the groups the Mantel-Haenszel test and when indicated the Fisher exact test were used. Bivariate multivariate and multilevel analyses were used to.