Background Brucellosis is an important zoonotic disease in developing countries yet

Background Brucellosis is an important zoonotic disease in developing countries yet it is often not recognized goes unreported and does not attract general public health action by these governments including Uganda. cattle keepers in Mbarara and consumers of unpasteurised milk in Kampala Districts was 5.8% (95%CI: 3.3% 8.3%) and 9% (95%CI: 13.3% 4.7%) respectively. Consumption of unboiled milk was significantly (p=0.004) associated with seropositivity in Mbarara District. There was no association between sero-positivity with age sex and awareness of human brucellosis. Conclusion Human brucellosis is usually prevalent among livestock rearing communities and consumers of unpasteurised milk. The continued consumption of unboiled milk is Ferrostatin-1 (Fer-1) a major health risk. Keywords: Brucellosis Modifiable risk factors Sero-prevalence unpasteurised milk cELISA Introduction Brucellosis also known as Malta fever or undulant fever for the disease in humans1 is among the most common and important zoonotic disease globally especially in developing countries yet it often is not recognized goes unreported and does not appeal to public health action by these governments2 3 You will find six known species with numerous biotypes. Brucella abortus and B. melitensis cause disease in cattle pigs sheep and goats respectively resulting in important economic losses. Although B. melitensis is the most pathogenic for humans Brucella species show cross-species infection particularly with B. melitensis (Corbel et al. 2006 Humans usually acquire brucellosis through contact with infected animals or consumption of contaminated milk or milk products4. Although B. melitensis is the most pathogenic compared to B. abortus for humans the consumption of goat milk in Uganda is not common5 (Ndyabahinduka et al 1978 Brucellosis is Ferrostatin-1 (Fer-1) also recognized as an occupational hazard for farmers veterinarians and workers in the meat industry in areas with enzootic B. abortus and/ or B. melitensis. A recent study among abattoir workers in Uganda reported a brucella seropositivity of 10% (95%CI: 6-16; n=232)6 (Nabukenya et al 2013 Symptoms of acute brucellosis caused by B. abortus and /or B. melitensis are flu-like and are highly non-specific. Chronic brucellosis is an insidious disease with vague symptoms that might be confused with other diseases affecting various organ systems5 7 The varied and sometimes deceptive manifestation of localized sub-acute Ferrostatin-1 (Fer-1) or chronic infections may lead to miss-diagnosis or delayed diagnosis if the attending clinician has a low index of suspicion. The disease is usually a zoonosis of worldwide distribution and a common cause of economic loss and ill health among animals and human populations. Even though incidence of brucellosis has decreased significantly in developed countries6 8 the disease remains a major public health threat in many developing countries including Uganda7 8 9 10 In Uganda the disease in animals remains a private matter with good with control steps either-measures either lacking or hard to implement. Brucellosis cases in the human population largely go un-noticed probably because the disease is not among those routinely screened for in health centers in Uganda. Consequently there Ferrostatin-1 (Fer-1) is poor knowledge if any concerning the prevalence Rabbit Polyclonal to Mevalonate Kinase. and epidemiology of this disease in the human population in Uganda. To date there is no comprehensive study to high light the status of human brucellosis in Uganda. This study sought to establish the sero-prevalence of Brucella antibodies among uncovered cattle keepers in Mbarara district where brucellosis is known to be endemic among livestock 9 10 11 12 among consumers of un-pasteurized milk in Kampala district and also to identify modifiable risk factors for the disease. Methods Ferrostatin-1 (Fer-1) Sampling and sample size determination The study populace was comprised of two groups. One group consisted of individuals from farms where cattle and/or goats tested positive for Brucella from an earlier survey in Mbarara district (south western Uganda – where 98 herds of cattle and goats from three agro-ecological zones were analyzed – unpublished) and the second group included individuals recruited at HIV counseling and testing medical center in Kampala who clarified in affirmative for consuming unpasteurized milk. For the Mbarara sample three teams each comprising of two medical laboratory technicians under the supervision of a medical doctor frequented households where cattle and/or goats tested positive for Brucella in a previous study. For the Kampala sample participants were asked to disclose their laboratory identification numbers for purposes of.