Emerging data indicate that adults with binge eating may exhibit an

Emerging data indicate that adults with binge eating may exhibit an attentional bias toward highly palatable foods which may promote obesogenic eating patterns and excess weight gain. foods cues and may partially explain JTT-705 (Dalcetrapib) the mixed literature linking attentional bias to food cues with excess body weight. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development NIH and USUHS institutional review board approvals were obtained for each study at the respective sites. Parents and participants provided written consent and assent respectively for study participation. Procedure Across the three studies all data were collected at participants’ screening visits following an overnight fast. Height and weight were collected and then participants consumed a breakfast meal (a breakfast shake granola bars or a muffin) to ensure satiety. Approximately 5 to 10 minutes after eating breakfast youth completed a questionnaire to assess hunger and immediately following completed a visual probe task. For the non-intervention studies the EDE was completed in the afternoon following the visual probe task. For the prevention study the baseline assessments took place over two days and the EDE was completed on CACNB2 a separate day from the visual probe task. Measures Body mass index (BMI) Height was measured in triplicate by stadiometer and weight was measured by calibrated scale to the nearest 0.1 kg. BMI (kg/m2) was calculated using height averaged across JTT-705 (Dalcetrapib) the three measurements and weight. Age and sex were included to produce a BMI-z score based on the Center for Disease Control and Prevention growth standards (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2000 Loss of control (LOC) eating The Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) is a semi-structured interview that was used to assess LOC eating. Children were administered either the EDE Version 12.0D (Fairburn & Cooper 1993 with updates from versions 14 JTT-705 (Dalcetrapib) and 15 or the child version (Bryant-Waugh Cooper Taylor & Lask 1996 Both the adult and child versions measure the same constructs and have been successfully combined in previous studies (e.g. Glasofer et al. 2007 Tanofsky-Kraff McDuffie et al. 2009 and have shown excellent inter-rater reliability (Glasofer et al. 2007 Tanofsky-Kraff et al. 2004 LOC eating was deemed present if youth endorsed at least one objective binge episode (defined as consuming an objectively large amount of food while experiencing a lack of control over eating) or subjective binge episode (defined as consuming an ambiguously large amount of food while experiencing a lack of control over eating) within the past 28 days. The number of LOC eating episodes over the past 28 days was collected. Hunger ratings Following breakfast all participants rated their level of hunger on a visual analog scale that ranged from “not at all” to “extremely” (on a scale of 0 JTT-705 (Dalcetrapib) to 100) immediately prior to participating in the visual probe task. Previous studies indicate that the visual analog scale is valid reliable and positively correlated with food intake (Parker et al. 2004 Stubbs et al. 2000 Visual probe task The visual probe task to measure bias in sustained attention consisted of 180 trials in which pairs of color photographs were presented on a HP laptop screen. The visual probe task was coded using E-Prime 2.0. The task used 90 photos from one of three categories: JTT-705 (Dalcetrapib) 30 high palatable (HP) foods (e.g. pizza donuts) 30 low palatable (LP) foods (e.g. pineapples mushrooms) and 30 neutral non-food (NF) control stimuli which consisted of emotionally neutral images of household items (e.g. paper shredder paintbrush). Each photo was shown a total of four times. All of the food stimuli and the majority of the neutral stimuli were drawn from a previously validated database. Additional neutral items were drawn from the International Affective Pictures System (Lang Bradley & Cuthbert 1999 The majority of pictures in the data source (94.3%) have already been used in prior research (e.g. Simmons et al. 2013 and also have been validated in an example of older children and adults by providing rankings of typicality (indications of how usual each picture was of its particular meals category) and palatability. This test provided typicality rankings (how usual each picture is at its particular meals category) and appetizing ratings both scored 1 to 7 with 7 representing the most frequent or appetizing. Typicality.