Supplementary Materials Physique S1 Hep3B cells were treated with vehicles (MeOH or DMSO), Efavirenz (EFV, 10 or 25?M), thapsigargin (Tg) 2?M, rotenone (Rot) 25?M or CCCP 10?M for 24?h. by RNA interference. siRNAs (sip62 and siCHOP) were from Santa Cruz Biotechnology (Heidelberg, Germany) while siwas from Dharmacon (Lafayette, CO, USA). SignalSilence? unconjugated control siRNA (Cell Signaling Technology, Danvers, MA, USA) was used for control experiments. Transient transfection was performed in t\75 flasks using Lipofectamine? 2000 transfection reagent (ThermoFisher Scientific, Walthman, MA, USA), according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Transfections were performed in serum\free OptiMEM Kaempferol pontent inhibitor (ThermoFisher Scientific) made up Kaempferol pontent inhibitor of siRNA (750?pmol of siRNA) and transfection reagent (37.5?L of Lipofectamine? 2000). After 24?h, the specific treatments were performed as indicated. To overexpress p62, cells were transfected with mCherry\p62 (a kind gift from Prof. Terje Johansen, Department of Medical Biology, The Arctic University of Norway) while pDEST plasmid (Invitrogen) was employed for control experiments. Transient transfection was performed in t\25 flasks using Lipofectamine? 2000 transfection reagent, according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Transfection was performed in serum\free OptiMEM (ThermoFisher Scientific) made up of 2.63?g plasmid DNA and transfection reagent (7.9?L of Lipofectamine? 2000). After 7?h, medium was refreshed and treatments (24?h) were initiated 30?h after transfection. Protein extraction and Western blot analysis Whole\cell, mitochondrial\enriched and cytosolic protein extracts were obtained, quantified and immunoblotted as described elsewhere (Apostolova employed as a housekeeping gene, and from Integrated DNA Technologies, Leuven, Belgium) were added in final reaction volume of 10?L. The reactions were as follows: 30?s\95C; 5?s\95C, 20?s\60C (50?cycles); 1?s\95C, 15?s\65C, 1?s\95C; and 30?s\40C. The specificity of the amplified products was verified by melting curve analysis. Normalized results (interpolated values for each sample divided by the corresponding value for ratio versus control (100%). promoter (35?cycles). PCR products were separated by electrophoresis in 2% agarose gel. using cell lines, and all the samples were analysed and quantified objectively, without randomization of samples or blinding of Kaempferol pontent inhibitor the operator due to technical limitations and a large number of assays. Data are shown as % of control, with untreated cells set to 100%. Data (mean??SEM) were analysed using GraphPad Prism v.6. software with a one\way ANOVA multiple comparison test followed by a NewmanCKeuls test or Student’s expression and not as a Slit3 consequence of altered degradation in the cytosol or other processes related to protein stability and turn\over. Open in a separate window Physique 1 p62 expression is increased at protein and mRNA level upon exposure to mitochondrial and ER stress stimuli. Cells were treated for 24?h (A, C, D, E and F) or 4, 8, 24 and 48?h (B) with increasing concentrations of efavirenz (EFV), vehicle (MeOH or DMSO), thapsigargin (Tg) 2?M, rotenone (Rot) 25?M or CCCP 10?M. Data (mean??SEM) are expressed as relative protein or mRNA content in relation to that of untreated cells (control, considered 100%) after normalization with expression of the housekeeping protein (\actin or GAPDH) or gene (in Hep3B cells (expression in untreated cell (without BAPTA\AM) was considered 100% (mean??SEM, promoter in presence of efavirenz, but not with Nrf2 or NF\B. A representative image of PCR bands after chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay performed in Hep3B cells treated with efavirenz (25?M), where chromatin was immunoprecititated with anti\Nrf2, anti\NF\B or anti\CHOP antibody and Kaempferol pontent inhibitor PCR assay was carried out to amplify the immunoprecipitated chromatin using primers flanking the binding site of Nrf2, NF\B or CHOP around the promoter (left panel); representative image of ChIP assay showing promoter occupancy by CHOP in Hep3B cells treated with vehicle and efavirenz (10 and 25?M) (right panel). A non\related antibody anti\IgG and input control were employed as negative and positive controls respectively. Several transcription factors have been reported to trans\regulate the gene expression of p62 (Puissant where the expression of LC3\II in untreated siControl cells was Kaempferol pontent inhibitor considered 100%. The absence of p62 confirmed the efficacy of silencing. (B) Relative mRNA levels of cells, were analysed by quantitative RT\PCR and normalized versus the housekeeping gene \Actin (in order to verify its silencing was studied by Western blotting (representative image) and the expression of GAPDH was employed as a reference. We wished to explore further the effect of p62 silencing in efavirenz\treated cells and so analysed representative parameters of both ER stress and mitochondrial function. In terms of ER.