Tag Archives: 2011; Lall et al.

Airborne particles are linked to many health impacts, including undesirable pregnancy

Airborne particles are linked to many health impacts, including undesirable pregnancy outcomes. period (CI): 1.24C16.8%) upsurge in threat of low delivery fat. An IQR upsurge in Ti was connected with a 12.1% (95% CI: 3.55C21.4%) upsurge in threat of low delivery fat, with an estimation of 6.41% (95% CI: ?5.80C20.2%) for men and 16.4% (95% CI: 5.13C28.9%) for females. Outcomes had been robust to awareness analysis of initial births only, however, not modification by co-pollutants. Disentangling the consequences of various chemical substance components is complicated due to the covariance among some elements due to very similar resources. Central effect quotes for newborns of African-American moms had been greater than those of white moms, although the self-confidence intervals overlapped. Our outcomes indicate that exposure to airborne potassium and titanium during pregnancy is definitely associated with lower birth excess weight. Associations may relate to chemical components of sources generating K and Ti. Keywords: air pollution, pregnancy, PM2.5, low birth weight, titanium, potassium 1. Intro Airborne particulate matter of various size ranges have been linked to several human health endpoints, especially for fine particles, those with aerodynamic diameter 2.5 m (PM2.5) (Pope and Dockery, 2006). The chemical structure of PM2.5 exhibits strong spatial and temporal heterogeneity (Bell et al., 2007a); however, this pollutant is definitely controlled by total mass and size only, without regard to chemical form. A growing body of medical evidence suggests that the toxicity of particles differs according to their resource and chemical composition, including recent studies of PM2.5 sources and components for mortality in Santiago, Chile (Cakmak et al., 2009); and Detroit and Seattle, US (Zhou et al., 2011); and for hospital admissions in New York, US (Ito et al., 2011; Lall et al., 2011); and multi-city US studies (Peng et al., 2009b; Zanobetti et al., 2009). Understanding which characteristics of particles are most harmful was identified as a critical study need by the US Environmental Protection Agency and National Source Council committees (NRC Committee on Study Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter Table on Environmental Studies and Toxicology, 2004; U.S. EPA, 2009). Associations between exposure to particles during pregnancy and adverse pregnancy outcomes has been observed in several studies, although results are inconsistent across studies Rabbit Polyclonal to DAPK3 and comparisons are hindered by variations in exposure assessment, statistical methods, and pollution characteristics (Maisonet et al., 2004; Slama et al., 2008; Woodruff et al., 2009). The International Collaboration on Air Pollution and Pregnancy Results applied a standard strategy to 14 datasets in 9 countries, finding that a 10 g/m3 increase in PM10 over pregnancy, modified for socio-economic status, was associated with increased risk of low birth excess weight from 0.63% for the Netherlands to 1 1.15% in Vancouver, with statistically significant results for 6 of the 14 datasets (Parker et al., 2011). The variations in effects across areas may relate to variations in the particles chemical composition. A recent meta-analysis found that a 10 g/m3 increase in PM2.5 over the gestational period 1028969-49-4 supplier was associated with a 9% (?10, 32%) increase in risk of low birth weight, but noted that future epidemiological studies should consider issues relating to particulates chemical composition and source (Sapkota et al., in press). To date, few studies have investigated PM2.5 sources or chemical components in relation to pregnancy outcomes. Studies in Los Angeles Co., California related PM2.5 from traffic and from road dust to increased risk of low birth weight (Wilhelm et al., In press) and specific PM2.5 components (e.g., organic carbon, elemental carbon, ammonium nitrate) to risk of preterm delivery (Wilhelm et al., 2011). Our earlier 1028969-49-4 supplier work in Connecticut and Massachusetts, US, found that higher exposures to PM2.5 from oil combustion and PM2.5 components of elemental carbon, zinc, vanadium, and nickel were associated with increased risk of low birth weight (Bell et al., 2010). In our previous work on PM2.5 chemical components we used a hypothesis driven approach to select the components for study by choosing those that contribute 1% or more to PM2.5 total mass (Bell et al., 2007a) and/or that exhibited potential associations based on a review of epidemiological and toxicological literature (Bell et 1028969-49-4 supplier al., 2011; Bell et al., 2009; Peng and Bell, 2010; Peng et al., 2009a). At the time of those studies,.