The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of subretinal injection of Schwann cells on preservation of retina by reducing oxidative stress in Dystrophic Royal College of Cosmetic surgeons (RCS) rats. fluorescent protein positive Schwann cells remained in one integrated coating during the study under RPE. The enzymatic evaluation showed that in cell group manifestation of SOD and GPx1 until month 2 and catalase until month 1 were significantly more than the sham group. At the end of month 3, the amplitude of ERG waves significantly preserved in cell group in comparison to baseline waves and the sham group. We concluded that Schwan cells are able to preserve retinal in RCS rats by reducing oxidative stress. strong class=”kwd-title” Key Words: Schwann Cells, Oxidative Stress, Retina, Electroretinogram, ELISA INTRODUCTION A common feature of retinal degenerative disease like retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is early dysfunction of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and subsequent loss of rod function which is followed by death of cone photoreceptor cells [1-3]. AMD is the uppermost cause of blindness in elderly and this is gaining more attention because the world is experiencing growth in number and proportion of aged people . It is estimated that 3 million elderly people in the United States will have advanced stages of AMD by 2020 . It is proven that oxidative stress is a major predisposing factor for AMD [6, 7]. Aging and environmental factors like sunlight exposure and smoking, increase oxidative stress [8, 9]. The beneficial outcome of dietary intake of antioxidants supplementation (vitamin C, vitamin E and carotene) and zinc to slow the progression of AMD is shown in several studies . In experimental models, the (2-Hydroxypropyl)-β-cyclodextrin delivery of growth factors, gene therapy and cell-based therapy can lower the progression rate of AMD and RP [11-14]. A major problem for cell transplantation is the need for immunosuppression ENTPD1 because these allogenic cell grafts are prohibited by the host immune system in animal studies . Schwann cells have a critical role in the preservation and renewal of axons of the neurons in the peripheral (2-Hydroxypropyl)-β-cyclodextrin nervous system (PNS) and secrete different growth factors including glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) for trophic support of damaged neurons and developing neurons . Schwann cells can support neuronal repair after injury in the central nervous system including spinal cord injury and retinal degenerative disease. Royal College of Surgeon (RCS) rats have an alteration in the receptor tyrosine kinase gene which prevents RPE cells from phagocytosing outer segments of rod cells and results in rod death later [17-20]. RSC rats have normal photoreceptors at birth but adjustments in photoreceptor nuclei are determined at times 22 and 25 and apparent indications of apoptotic loss of life happen . At day time 60 the standard pairing of postsynaptic and presynaptic indicators was completely misplaced . Syngeneic transplantation can be done for Schwann cells, because they can be gathered and (2-Hydroxypropyl)-β-cyclodextrin transplanted to genetically similar host which procedure eliminates the necessity for immunosuppression . Earlier studies show that syngeneic subretinal transplantation of Schwann cells can support photoreceptor success by secreting development factors such as for example ciliary neurotrophic element (CNTF), GDNF and brain-derived neurotrophic element (BDNF) [24-26]. Alternatively it is demonstrated that Schwann cells can decrease oxidative tension in PNS . Therefore we hypothesized that another system for the supportive part of Schwann cells within the retina could be because of oxidative tension reduction . The purpose of this research was to judge the part of oxidative tension pathway in retinal degeneration in RCS rats and evaluation of subretinal shot of autologous Schwann cells, using electroretinogram (ERG) and cells evaluation. The Schwann cells had been transplanted young prior to the oxidative tension level was therefore high to damage significant amounts of photoreceptors. METHODS Pets.